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Subject and Predicate

Subject and Predicate

Subject and Predicate

एक वाक्य दो मुख्य भागों में  बटा होता है –



Subject – जिसके बारे में कुछ कहा जाये उसे Subject (कर्ता ) कहते हैं

Predicate – subject के बारे में जो कुछ कहा जाये उसे Predicate कहते हैं

Subject                                                                 Predicate

Birds                                                                      fly.

My sister                                                             has passed.

The old man                                                       had no son.

नोट – एक subject अथवा predicate में एक या एक से अधिक शब्द हो सकते हैं जेसा ऊपर के वाक्यों में है 


ऐसे शब्द समूह को जिनसे पूरा अर्थ ण निकले बल्कि कुछ अर्थ निकले, Phrases (वाक्यांश) कहते हैं 

जैसे -

in a corner

at the door

in the west

on the roof

किसी वाक्यांश को पूर्ण वाक्य बनाने के लिए हमें उसमे कुछ और शब्द जोड़ने पड़ते हैं - जैसे

Ram is sitting in the room.

He is playing in the ground.

The sun sets in the west.

The woman is at the door.

blog post

Lesson : 1 -Farmer, Miller and Baker

Choose 'True' and 'False' for the given statement



Satire Definition

Satire is a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles. A writer in a satire uses fictional characters, which stand for real people, to expose and condemn their corruption.
A writer may point a satire toward a person, a country or even the entire world. Usually, a satire is a comical piece of writing which makes fun of an individual or a society to expose its stupidity and shortcomings. In addition, he hopes that those he criticizes will improve their characters by overcoming their weaknesses.

Satire and Irony

Satire and irony are interlinked. Irony is the difference between what is said or done and what is actually meant. Therefore, writers frequently employ satire to point at the dishonesty and silliness of individuals and society and criticize them by ridiculing them.

Examples of Satire in Everyday Life

Most political cartoons which we witness every day in newspapers and magazines are examples of satire. These cartoons criticize some recent actions of political figures in a comical way.
Some shows on television are satire examples like The Daily ShowThe Colbert Report, and The Larry Sanders Show. These shows claim to target what they think are stupid political and social viewpoints.
Let us see a sample of Stephen Colbert’s social satire:
“If this is going to be a Christian nation that doesn’t help the poor, either we have to pretend that Jesus was just as selfish as we are, or we’ve got to acknowledge that He commanded us to love the poor and serve the needy without condition and then admit that we just don’t want to do it.”

Satire Examples in Literature

Example #1

There are numerous examples of satire in Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn. He uses satire as a tool to share his ideas and opinion on slavery, human nature and many other issues that afflicted American society at that time.
Below are a few citations from the novel that demonstrate satire:
  • “What’s the use you learning to do right, when it’s troublesome to do right and isn’t no trouble to do wrong, and the wages is just the same?” (Chap 16)
  • “There warn’t anybody at the church, except maybe a hog or two, for there warn’t any lock on the door, and hogs likes a puncheon floor in summer-time because it’s cool. If you notice, most folks don’t go to church only when they’ve got to; but a hog is different.” (Chap 18)
  • “The pitifulest thing out is a mob; that’s what an army is–a mob; they don’t fight with courage that’s born in them, but with courage that’s borrowed from their mass, and from their officers. But a mob without any man at the head of it is beneath pitifulness.” (chap 22)

Example #2

Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock is an example of poetic satire in which he has satirized the upper middle class of eighteenth century England. It exposes the vanity of young fashionable ladies and gentlemen and the frivolity of their actions. For example, Pope says about Belinda after losing her lock of hair:
“Whether the nymph shall break Diana’s law,
Or some frail china jar receive a flaw,
Or stain her honor, or her new brocade”
The line mocks at the values of the fashionable class of that age. The trivial things were thought of as equal to significant things. For Belinda, the loss of her virtue becomes equal to a China jar being cracked.

Example #3

Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver Travels is one of the finest satirical works in English Literature. Swift relentlessly satirizes politics, religion, and Western Culture. Criticizing party politics in England, Swift writes,
“that for above seventy Moons past there have been two struggling Parties in this Empire, under the Names of Tramecksan and Slamecksan from the high and low Heels on their shoes, by which they distinguish themselves.”
During Swift’s times, two rival political parties, the Whigs and the Tories, dominated the English political scene. Similarly, “The Kingdom of Lilliput” is dominated by two parties distinguished by the size of the heels of their boots. By the trivial disputes between the two Lilliputian parties”, Swift satirizes the minor disputes of the two English parties of his period.

Function of Satire

The role of satire is to ridicule or criticize those vices in the society, which the writer considers a threat to civilization. The writer considers it his obligation to expose these vices for the betterment of humanity. Therefore, the function of satire is not to make others laugh at persons or ideas they make fun of. It intends to warn the public and to change their opinions about the prevailing corruption/conditions in society.

political science bser class 12

नाटो की स्थापना कब हुई ? 1949

तीसरी दुनिया से क्या अर्थ हे ? - विकासशील या अल्पविकसित देशो का समूह

सोवियत संघ के नेतृत्व में बने पूर्वी गठबंधन को किस नाम से जाना गया ? - वारसा संधि

भारत ने शीतयुद्ध से अलग रहने के लिए किस आन्दोलन की शुरुआत की ? - गुटनिरपेक्ष आन्दोलन

अमेरिका ने हिरोशिमा नागासाकी पैर अणु बम कब गिराए ?
6 अगस्त ओर 9 अगस्त 1945  

संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका की ख़ुफ़िया एजेंसी का नाम बताओ ?
सी. आई. ए.

हिरोशिमा व नागासाकी पर गिराए गए परमाणु बमों के क्या नाम थे ?
लिटिल ब्याय व फेटमेन

हिरोशिमा व नागासाकी पर गिराए गए परमाणु बमों की क्षमता कितनी थी ?
१५ व् २१ किलोटन

गुटनिरपेक्ष आन्दोलन ने क्या किया ?
नव स्वतंत्र देशो को दो ध्रुवीय गुटों से अलग रहने का मोका दिया


indian constituion

  • भारत का संविधान (Constitution of India) एक लिखित और मौलिक दस्तावेज है जिसके आधार पर देश की शासन व्यवस्था संचालित की जाती है।
    भारतीय संविधान का निर्माण करने के लिए जुलाई 1946 में संविधान सभा का गठन किया गया।
  • भारत के संविधान (Constitution of India) विश्व का सबसे बड़ा संविधान है।
  • भारत के संविधान (Constitution of India) का निर्माण संविधान सभा, जो कि चुने हुए प्रतिनिधियों की सभा थी, के द्वारा किया गया।
  • संविधान सभा के कुल सदस्यों की संख्या 389 थी।
  • संविधान सभा का प्रथम अधिवेशन 9 दिसंबर 1946 को सम्पन्न हुआ था।
  • संविधान सभा के प्रथम अधिवेशन की अध्यक्षता डॉ. सच्चिदानंद सिन्हा ने की थी।
  • 11 दिसंबर 1946 को डॉ. राजेंद्र प्रसाद संविधान सभा का स्थायी अध्यक्ष नियुक्त किया गया था।
  • भारत के संविधान (Constitution of India) को बनाने में 2 वर्ष 11 महीने और 18 दिन का समय लगा था।
  • आरम्भ में भारत के संविधान (Constitution of India) में 395 अनुच्छेद, 22 भाग और 8 अनुसूचियाँ थीं।
  • भारत के संविधान (Constitution of India) में उल्लेखित उद्देश्य प्रस्ताव को भारतीय संविधान की नींव माना गया।
  • 13 दिसंबर 1946 को पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरू ने संविधान सभा के समक्ष उद्देश्य प्रस्ताव को प्रस्तुत किया था।
  • डॉ. भीमराव अंबेडकर को संविधान का प्रारूप समिति का अध्यक्ष बनाया गया था।
  • प्रारूप समिति में सात सदस्य थे।
  • 26 नवंबर 1949 को भारतीय संविधान को अंगीकृत किया गया। संविधान को अंगीकृत करने के लिए 284 सदस्यों ने हस्ताक्षर किए।
  • 24 जनवरी 1950 को संविधान सभा की अन्तिम बैठक हुई थी।
  • 26 जनवरी 1950 को भारतीय संविधान लागू किया गया।
  • संविधान की प्रस्तावना को संविधान की कुंजी कहा जाता है।
  • डॉ. भीमराव अंबेडकर को भारतीय संविधान का जनक कहा जाता है।
  • ब्रिटेन के संसदीय शासन प्रणाली को भारतीय संविधान में शामिल किया गया है।
  • ब्रिटेन की कानून निर्माण प्रक्रिया को संविधान में शामिल किया गया है।
  • भारतीय संविधान में एकल नागरिकता, संसदीय विशेषाधिकार, मंत्रिपरिषद का लोकसभा के प्रति उत्तरदायित्व, राष्ट्रपति का संवैधानिक प्रमुख के रूप में अस्तित्व और अखिल भारतीय सेवा प्रणाली ब्रिटेन से प्रभावित हैं।
  • संविधान में ‘गणतंत्र प्रणाली’ फ्रांस के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘आपातकालीन उपबंध’ जर्मनी के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘राज्य के नीति-निर्देशक तत्व’ आयरलैंड के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘संविधान संशोधन प्रणाली’ दक्षिण अफ्रीका के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘मौलिक कर्तव्य और नियोजन प्रणाली’ रूस के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘कानून द्वारा स्थापित शब्दावली’ जापान के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘संविधान की प्रस्तावना की भाषा, समवर्ती सूची, केंद्र-राज्य के बीच शक्तियों का विभाजन’ऑस्ट्रेलिया के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘संघात्मक शासन व्यवस्था एवं अवशिष्ट शक्तियों का केंद्रीकरण’ कनाडा के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • संविधान में ‘मौलिक अधिकार, सुप्रीम कोर्ट का गठन और अधिकार’ एवं ‘उपराष्ट्रपति का पद’ संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका (यूएसए) के संविधान से लिया गया।
  • वर्तमान में संविधान में बारह अनुसूचियाँ हैं।


Macbeth Test (questions and answers)

. Macbeth won the respect of King Duncan by
A. slaying the traitor Macdonwald. (Act I scene II)
B. serving as a gracious host for his king.
C. not pleading for advancement.
2. King Duncan rewarded Macbeth by dubbing him
A. the Earl of Sinel.
B. the Thane of Cawdor him. . (act I scene II)
C. Bellona's bridegroom
3. In addressing Banquo, the witches called him which of these?
"Lesser than Macbeth, and greater." (I)
"Not so happy as Macbeth, yet much happier." (II)
"A future father of kings." (III)
A. I and II
B. I and III (act I scene III)
C. I, II, and III
4. When Macbeth said, "Two truths are told / As happy prologues" he was referring to
A. his titles of Glamis and Cawdor.
B. the victories against the kerns and gallowglasses.
C. the predictions made to Banquo and to himself. (act I scene III)
5. "Nothing in his life / Became him like the leaving it" is a reference to
A. the traitorous Thane of Cawdor.  (act I scene IV)
B. Banquo's son, Fleance.
C. Duncan's son, Donalbain.
6. Duncan's statement, "I have begun to plant thee and will labour / To make thee full of growing" is an example of
A. a simile.
B. a metaphor.  (Act I scene IV)
C. personification.
7. Lady Macbeth characterizes her husband as being
A. "the glass of fashion and the mould of form."
B. "too full of the milk of human kindness." (act I scene V)
C. "a cannon overcharg'd with a double crack."
8. When Macbeth agonizes over the possible killing of the king, which of these does he say?
"He is my house guest; I should protect him." (I)
"Duncan's virtues will "plead like angels" " (II)
"I am his kinsman and his subject" (III)
A. I and III
B. II and III
C. I, II, and III (Act I Scene VII)
9. Macbeth's statement to his wife, "Bring forth men-children only" signifies that he
A. is proud of his wife's transformation. ( act I scene VII)
B. is concerned over the succession to the throne.
C. has accepted the challenge to slay the king.
10. As part of the plan to kill the king, Lady Macbeth would
A. get the chamberlains drunk. (act II scene II)
B. smear Duncan's face with blood.
C. arrange an alibi for Macbeth.
11. Trace Macbeth's transformation from a good man to an evil man.
·         Macbeth begins as a hero. He is given a title, and the glory of heroism. He meets witches that foretell of his assent to the throne, and begins to have thoughts. He is pushed even further down the path of destruction by his wife who hears of the potential crown. As the thoughts continue to circle in Macbeth’s head, he further develops the idea of betrayal  of those to whom he was once loyal. When the opportunity presents itself, he cannot help but take it.
12. What motivates Macbeth to take the evil path he chooses?
·         Macbeth is motivated by the idea of glory. He is also motivated by his dominate wife, who pushes him to pursue a higher title than the one that he possesses. Because of his love for her, and his desire to please her as well as fulfill his deeper, darker desire, he takes steps that lead him down a darker path.   
13. What influence do the witches have on Macbeth?
·         The witches tell Macbeth that he can obtain what he desires. They tell him of a reality that his darkest self wishes to possess. They appeal, and fuel the repressed desires of a loyal, faithful man, and introduce him to another life.
14. Contrast Macbeth's response to the witches' predictions with Banquo's.
·         Macbeth inquires how to obtain the predictions. He questions the validity, and wishes to explore his options in relation to the procurement of the prophesies. Banquo listens to the ideas presented to him, and questions no further. He is honored by the thought of his descendants obtaining the throne, but does not question how or when it will come to pass.
15. Describe the relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Trace how it changes over the course of the play.
·         At the outset of the play, Macbeth is ruled by the desires of Lady Macbeth. What she wants, she obtains through the manipulation of her husband. (while he is an honorable man) After she has convinced her husband to commit treason, he becomes more distant, and consumed by guilt, and must face the horror of what he has done. She has an equal part in guilt, but is not plagued by the feelings of remorse, or by the visions that her husband is, until it consumes her. Because Macbeth has become more distant, he becomes a more independent thinker, acting for himself, instead of falling prey to his wife’s desires and manipulations.  
1. "Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible / To feeling as to sight?" is a reference to the
A. ghost of Banquo.
B. dagger.
C. bubbling cauldron.
2. Lady Macbeth confessed that she would have killed King Duncan herself except for the fact that
A. she couldn't gain easy access to his bedchamber
B. he looked like her father
C. one of Duncan's guards spied her on the to stairway
3. Shakespeare introduced the Porter in order to
A. allow Macduff to gain admission to the castle.  (Act II scene III)
B. remind the audience of the Witches' prophecies.
C. provide comic relief.
4. Malcolm and Donalbain flee after the murder
A. because they fear the daggers in men's smiles. (act II scene III)
B. in order to join Macduff in England.
C. lest they be blamed for it.
5. Macbeth arranges for Banquo's death by telling the hired killers that
A. Banquo had thwarted their careers. (act III scene I)
B. if they fail, they will pay with their own lives.
C. he will eradicate all records of their previous crimes.
6. Macbeth startles his dinner guests by
A. conversing with the Ghost of Banquo (act III scene III)
B. attempting to wash the blood from his hands
C. saying to Lady Macbeth that, "Murder will out."
7. The Witches threw into the cauldron
"Eye of newt and tongue of frog"(I)
"Wool of bat and tongue of dog" (II)
"Fang of snake and eagle's glare" (III)
A. I and II (act IV scene I)
B. I and III
C. II and III
8. The three apparitions which appeared to Macbeth were
An armed head. (I)
A child with a crown. (II)
A bloody child (III)
A. I and II
B. II and III
C. I, II, and III (act IV scene I)
9. In Act IV, Malcolm is at first lukewarm toward Macduff because he
A. wasn't prepared to overthrow Macbeth.
B. suspects a trick.
C. wasn't worthy of becoming king, in his opinion. (act IV scene III)
10. Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane when
A. the witches rendezvous with Macbeth.
B. the camouflaged soldiers make their advance.
C. Lady Macbeth convinces her husband to stand and fight.  (act V scene III)
11. What is the significance of the line "Fair is foul, and foul is fair" (I, i, 10)?
·         In omniscient point of view that is possessed by the audience, the topsy-turvy morality of the actions performed by the characters is visible. “Fair is foul, and foul is fair,”  makes reference to all of the otherwise treacherous and backwards actions that are being taken in the betrayal of the king, and the plotting that is done by the parties whom Macbeth has wronged.
12. How does Macbeth function as a morality play?
·         Macbeth serves to illustrate the morality that had existed in the past in Scotland and to serve the superstitious beliefs of the day. Macbeth showed the faulty processes of the former monarchs in Scotland, while entertaining with witches that were dark, powerful entertaining Shakespeare’s audience. He made the characters examples of the most extreme changes in character, and the most horrific acts that could be committed for the possession of power, relief of paranoia, and to ease the conscience. Shakespeare also showed the dangers of rationalization of our actions through his main character. Macbeth rationalized away the murders of those that trusted him, while becoming calloused to the other events taking place around him and stepping further and further down a dark and dangerous path (from which there was no return).
13. How does Shakespeare use the technique of dramatic irony in Macbeth?
·         Shakespeare uses dramatic irony to show the darkness of the characters, and to show the stages of guilt, and the changing of Macbeth from honorable man to traitor. In the end, everything that Macbeth had fought for had turned on him. He was haunted by his actions. Finally, the punishments that he had ordered for others were doled out to him in return for his horrific deeds because of his shift to a more evil version of what he had been.
14. How does Lady Macbeth overcome her husband's resistance to the idea of killing King Duncan?
·         Lady Macbeth uses manipulation and guilt trips to persuade her husband that he should fulfill a promise that he made to her. She tells him of the perfect opportunity that has presented itself, and then proceeds to tell her husband the upside, rather than focusing on the dark, treacherous side.
15. Contrast Macduff's response to the news of his wife's and children's deaths with Macbeth's response to being told Lady Macbeth is dead.

·         Macduff was heart-broken by the news of his wife and children. He was hurt by the pain he had caused them, and took the blame for their deaths upon himself because of his abandonment. Macbeth simply recognized the fragility of life, and failed to come to terms with the ideas that Macduff grasped. Macbeth did not take responsibility, or even recognize the gravity of the situation. He was distracted by the threat on his own life. 

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Blog posts October 2016

political science bser class 12

नाटो की स्थापना कब हुई ? 1949

तीसरी दुनिया से क्या अर्थ हे ? - विकासशील या अल्पविकसित देशो का समूह

सोवियत संघ के नेतृत्व में बने पूर्वी गठबंधन को किस नाम से…

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